Toxoplasma Gondii: A Review of Parasitology, Pathology, and Epidemiology

Toxoplasma gondii: A Review of Parasitology, Pathology, and Epidemiology

Toxoplasma gondii: An assessment Parasitology, Pathology, and Epidemiology Parasites are naturally " clever, ” yet insidious organisms. You may have a parasite inside you right now, without knowing this. An effective vermine lives without being detected mainly because if it is, then simply measures could be taken to get rid of it. One such parasite is known as Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii is a great obligate intracellular protozoan initial discovered by simply Nicolle and Manceaux in 1908 (Nguyen, 2006). As its discovery, To. gondii continues to be implicated as the instrumental agent of toxoplasmosis, an infectious disease that may result within a spectrum of consequences. T. gondii continues to be an important disease in the modern world, especially in pregnant women and immunocompromised people. In order to better understand how Big t. gondii can infect its human website hosts, we will certainly explore the parasite's mobile properties and survival strategies. Parasitic Attributes

Parasites are amazing microorganisms because they have to develop and survive in unusual and frequently hostile conditions. In the face of such aggressive circumstances, parasites have adapted several complex strategies that allow them to survive. Prevalent characteristics of successful parasitic organisms include methods that allow easy entry in the host, techniques to avoid diagnosis by the host immune system, the cabability to develop eggs/cysts, the ability to find a new host, and avoidance of getting rid of the number (Camus & Zalis, 1995). Toxoplasma gondii employs several of these strategies to be able to complete their life routine. T. gondii is a single-celled eukaryotic protozoan parasite includes a characteristic crescent shape. This kind of shape provides a critical function in breeching host cells. One end of the cellular is more conical and is considered to be the region that initially breeches the host's cell membrane (CDC, 2008). The opposite end of the cell is more indicated and is in charge of holding the organelles that function in attachment and infiltration of host skin cells (Huynh, Rabenau, Harper & Beatty, 2003). Although it is not entirely understood how T. gondii crosses into its host cell, it has been hypothesized that organelles called mirconemes provide adhesive protein manifestation. The M2AP-MIC2 complex of proteins found in this organelle appears to be responsible for these adhesive secretions (Huynh et. approach, 2003). In addition to aiding in adhesion and add-on, this sophisticated appears to facilitate the organism's motility too, especially seeing that no different means of motility such as flagella have been discovered (Camus & Zalis, 1995). T. gondii also has rhoptries, which are regulated secretory organelles involved in the attack of number cells. These rhoptry protein secrete chemical compounds upon coming into the web host cell to vary the cell's vacuole pertaining to maximum success upon to support in the duplication process (Bradley & Boothroyd, 2001). A site on the rhoptry protein ROP1 has been suggested as paving the pro region in rhoptry protein function (Bradley & Boothroyd, 2001). This ROP1 web page has been the focus on of much study for potential vaccines to T. gondii, which will be mentioned further in a later section. T. gondii also utilizes several components to help avoid its detection by the host's immune system. This kind of organism has the ability to seclude on its own from the environment when stressed by immunologic factors. For instance , the parasitic cell has the capacity to insert and present specific antigens about its surface area to cover up it by immune assault (Nguyen, 2006). Toxoplasma is also able to get into immunologically competent macrophages to be able to " defuse” the getting rid of mechanisms of such...

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concentrating on signal

Camus, D. & Zalis, M. G. (1995). The art of parasite survival. Biology and Biochemistry of

Parasites, 28, 399-413.

Center for Disease Control. (2008). Toxoplasmosis. Center for Disease Control and Prevention,

Retrieved July 14, 2012

Dubey, Deb. S. & Speer, M. A. (1998). Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites,

and sporozoites and biology and development of cells cysts

Huynh, M., Rabenau, K. Elizabeth., Harper, M. M. & Beatty, W. L. (2003). Rapid intrusion of web host cells

by Toxoplasma requires release of the MIC2–M2AP adhesive necessary protein complex

Jones, J. T., Kruszon-Moran, G. & McAuley, J. N. (2001). Toxoplasma gondii disease in the

United States: seroprevalence and risk factors

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schizophrenia and comparability between Toxoplasma-seropositive and Toxoplasma-seronegative schizophrenia

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