Persistent Poverty

 Chronic Poverty Essay

Low income: Causes, Answers and Consequences in Country South Africa

At the Francis, Apr 2006

Advancement Studies Company London University of Economics Houghton Saint London WC2A 2AE elizabeth. m. [email protected] ac. uk

CPRC Doing work Paper Number 60

Persistent Poverty Analysis Centre ISBN: 1-904049-59-1

Elizabeth Francis is a Senior Lecturer in Expansion Studies in the London College of Economics.

Acknowledgements The research on which the truth study relies was completed as a collaborative project with Colin Murray and Rachel Slater, of the University of Manchester, within the title ‘Multiple Livelihoods and Social Change', funded by the UK Division for International Development. The project engaged comparative research on lower income, livelihoods and social differentiation in North West Province and the Cost-free State, S. africa. I should like to thank Ben Mosiane and Nancy Moilwa, of the University or college of the North West, who have assisted me in the exploration, and staff at the North West Region Department of Land Affairs.

Abstract This kind of paper investigates recent input to the research of poverty, particularly those emphasising the constraints on the poor carried by social contact and establishments that methodically benefit the powerful. This proposes a great analytic framework for study of the reasons behind poverty, replies to low income and the consequences of those answers. This construction is then applied to a case study from countryside South Africa. The situation study underlines the importance of understanding the processes linking poverty at the regional level with the regional and national political economy. In addition, it suggests that responses to poverty in this case might be unsustainable.

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Table of Contents Subjective 1 . installment payments on your 3. Introduction Understanding Lower income and Livelihoods Poverty in Rural S. africa a) What causes Poverty – mapping the institutional panorama (i) Champions and guys in the transition from Apartheid (ii) Provincial restructuring, rural development and land change b) North West Province c) Madibogo (i) Difference and lower income (ii) How poor people react to poverty four. 5. Plan Implications Conclusions Notes Sources (i) 1 1 5 5 five 8

9 11 12 14 18 18 nineteen 20

1 .

Introduction

Latest discussion of the analysis of poverty and livelihoods attracts attention to the limitations of currently dominant methods. Measuring the incidence of poverty is an important first step in understanding it, but measurement alone does not describe the causes of lower income. Analysing livelihoods in terms of the assets and strategies of the poor opens up space for taking seriously the focal points, choices and initiatives shown by poor people, but it hazards underplaying the constraints tossed up by simply social associations and institutions that methodically benefit the powerful. In addition, it risks making an supposition that such livelihoods are sustainable. This paper showcases these talks to develop a great analytic construction for study regarding poverty, the one that examines the causes, responses to this and the implications of those answers. It then uses this framework to discuss the lives of people in a remote rural area in S. africa. People's responses to low income in this circumstance appear to be becoming unsustainable and their livelihoods seem increasingly sensitive. There is no required reason why replies to low income should be sustainable. 2 . Understanding Poverty and Livelihoods

Understanding poverty matters because of the scale and interesting depth of poverty found in a large number of developing countries. Poverty decrease is now at the core of advancement policy-making and a key determination of subscriber agencies. There is considerable disagreement, however , over the extent of poverty and also whether it is elevating or decreasing worldwide (World Bank, 2000; Reddy and Pogge, 2002; Ravallion, 2002; Wade; 2004). There is also difference over how to define poverty. Laderchi, Saith and Stewart (2003) discover four diverse approaches to determining and testing...

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