Low income: Causes, Answers and Consequences in Country South Africa
At the Francis, Apr 2006
Advancement Studies Company London University of Economics Houghton Saint London WC2A 2AE elizabeth. m. [email protected] ac. uk
CPRC Doing work Paper Number 60
Persistent Poverty Analysis Centre ISBN: 1-904049-59-1
Elizabeth Francis is a Senior Lecturer in Expansion Studies in the London College of Economics.
Acknowledgements The research on which the truth study relies was completed as a collaborative project with Colin Murray and Rachel Slater, of the University of Manchester, within the title вЂMultiple Livelihoods and Social Change', funded by the UK Division for International Development. The project engaged comparative research on lower income, livelihoods and social differentiation in North West Province and the Cost-free State, S. africa. I should like to thank Ben Mosiane and Nancy Moilwa, of the University or college of the North West, who have assisted me in the exploration, and staff at the North West Region Department of Land Affairs.
Abstract This kind of paper investigates recent input to the research of poverty, particularly those emphasising the constraints on the poor carried by social contact and establishments that methodically benefit the powerful. This proposes a great analytic framework for study of the reasons behind poverty, replies to low income and the consequences of those answers. This construction is then applied to a case study from countryside South Africa. The situation study underlines the importance of understanding the processes linking poverty at the regional level with the regional and national political economy. In addition, it suggests that responses to poverty in this case might be unsustainable.
Table of Contents Subjective 1 . installment payments on your 3. Introduction Understanding Lower income and Livelihoods Poverty in Rural S. africa a) What causes Poverty вЂ“ mapping the institutional panorama (i) Champions and guys in the transition from Apartheid (ii) Provincial restructuring, rural development and land change b) North West Province c) Madibogo (i) Difference and lower income (ii) How poor people react to poverty four. 5. Plan Implications Conclusions Notes Sources (i) 1 1 5 5 five 8
9 11 12 14 18 18 nineteen 20
Latest discussion of the analysis of poverty and livelihoods attracts attention to the limitations of currently dominant methods. Measuring the incidence of poverty is an important first step in understanding it, but measurement alone does not describe the causes of lower income. Analysing livelihoods in terms of the assets and strategies of the poor opens up space for taking seriously the focal points, choices and initiatives shown by poor people, but it hazards underplaying the constraints tossed up by simply social associations and institutions that methodically benefit the powerful. In addition, it risks making an supposition that such livelihoods are sustainable. This paper showcases these talks to develop a great analytic construction for study regarding poverty, the one that examines the causes, responses to this and the implications of those answers. It then uses this framework to discuss the lives of people in a remote rural area in S. africa. People's responses to low income in this circumstance appear to be becoming unsustainable and their livelihoods seem increasingly sensitive. There is no required reason why replies to low income should be sustainable. 2 . Understanding Poverty and Livelihoods
Understanding poverty matters because of the scale and interesting depth of poverty found in a large number of developing countries. Poverty decrease is now at the core of advancement policy-making and a key determination of subscriber agencies. There is considerable disagreement, however , over the extent of poverty and also whether it is elevating or decreasing worldwide (World Bank, 2000; Reddy and Pogge, 2002; Ravallion, 2002; Wade; 2004). There is also difference over how to define poverty. Laderchi, Saith and Stewart (2003) discover four diverse approaches to determining and testing...
References: Aliber, M. (2001) вЂStudy from the Incidence and Nature of Chronic Lower income and Expansion Policy in South Africa: an overview', Persistent Poverty Research Centre, Backdrop Paper, No . 3 (2001), available at www.chronicpoverty.org/pdfs/sa.pdf ANC (African National Congress) (1994) The Reconstruction and Development Program, Johannesburg: Africa National Our elected representatives. Baulch, B. and J. Hoddinott (2000) вЂEconomic Range of motion and Low income Dynamics in Developing Countries', Introduction to a particular Issue from the Journal of Development Studies, 36(6): 1-24. Berry, S i9000. (1986) Dads Work for Their Sons: Deposition, Mobility and Class Development in an Extended Yoruba Community, Berkeley, CALIFORNIA and Birmingham: University of California Press. Bevan, S. (2004) Exploring the Structured Characteristics of Persistent Poverty: A Sociological Way, University of Birmingham, ESRC Research Group on Well-being in Expanding Countries, Working Paper 06. Bophuthatswana, Republic of (1993) Population Census, Mmabatho, Central Statistical Service. Breutz, L. -L. (1955) The Tribes of Mafeking District, Department of Indigenous Affairs, Ethnological Publications No . 32, Pretoria, Government Printer. Bryceson, D. (2004) вЂAgrarian Vista or perhaps Vortex: Photography equipment Rural Sustenance Policies', Report on African Politics Economy, 102: 617-629. Carney, D. (ed. ) (1998) Sustainable Countryside Livelihoods: What Contribution Do we Make?, Birmingham: Department to get International Development. Carney, Deb., M. Drinkwater, T. Rusinow, K. Neefjes, S. Wanmali and D. Singh (1999) Livelihoods Approaches Compared, Greater london: Department to get International Creation. Chambers, Ur. and G. Conway (1992) Sustainable Country Livelihoods: Useful Concepts pertaining to the modern world, IDS Conversation Paper Number 296, Brighton: IDS. Friends, B. (ed. ) (2001) At The Crossroads: Land And Agrarian Reform in South Africa into the modern world, Cape Town/Johannesburg: Programme to get Land and Agrarian Studies, University with the Western Cape/National Land Committee. De Klerk, M. (1994) вЂSeasons That could Never Go back: The Impact of Farm Mechanization on Job, Incomes and Population Syndication in the Traditional western Transvaal, " Journal of Southern Africa Studies 10: 84вЂ“ a hundred and five. Department of Minerals and Energy (2005) Minerals: Record Tables 1983200, at http://www.dme.gov.za/publications/pdf/directories/b1_statistical_tables _2005. pdf file du Toit, A. (2005a) Poverty Way of measuring Blues: A lot of Reflections within the Space for Understanding вЂChronic' and вЂStructural' Poverty in South Africa, Serious Poverty Study Centre, Doing work Paper No . 55.
du Toit, A. (2005b) Chronic and Structural Lower income in S. africa: Challenges to use it and Study, Chronic Lower income Research Hub, Working Conventional paper No . 56. Ferguson, J. (1999) Targets of Modern quality: Myths and Meanings of Urban Your life on the Zambian Copperbelt, Berkeley and La (CA) and London: University or college of Washington dc Press. Francis, E. (2000) Making a Living: Changing Livelihoods in Rural Africa, London: Routledge. Francis, E. (2002) вЂRural Livelihoods, Organizations and Weeknesses in North West Region, South Africa', Journal of Southern Photography equipment Studies, 28(3): 531-550. Green, M. and D. Hulme (2005) вЂFrom Correlates and Characteristics to Causes: Thinking of Poverty via a Long-term Poverty Perspective', World Creation 33(6): 867-879. Greenberg, T. (2004) Post-Apartheid Development, Landlessness and the Reproduction of Exemption in South Africa, University of Natal, Middle for City Society, Analysis Report No . 17, for http://www/nu.ac.za/ccs Guyer, J. and P. Peters (1987) вЂConceptualizing the Household: Concerns of Theory and Coverage in The african continent, Introduction', Creation and Change, 18. 2 . Lounge, R. (2004a) вЂA Politics Economy of Land Reform in Southern region Africa', Overview of African Personal Economy, 90: 213-227. Lounge, R. (2004b) Land and Agrarian Change in South Africa: A Status Survey 2004, School of the American Cape, Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, Study Report No . 20, in http://www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/livelihoods/landrights/dow nloads/land_agrarian_reform_%20sa_status_report_2004. pdf Hulme, D. and A. Shepherd (2003) вЂConceptualizing Chronic Poverty', World Development 31(3): 403-423. Kingdon. G. and T. Knight (2001) What Have got We Learned About Unemployment via Microdatasets in South Africa? University or college of Oxford, Department of Economics, Hub for the Study of African Economies (typescript), offered by http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/ resprogs/usam/social%20dynamics%20paper. pdf Laderchi, C. 3rd there’s r., R. Saith and N. Stewart (2003) вЂDoes this matter we do not acknowledge the definition of poverty? An evaluation of four approaches', Oxford Development Studies, 31. 3, 243-274. Lahiff, Electronic & Scoones, I. (2001) The Governmental policies of Terrain Reform in Southern Africa, Cape Area: Programme intended for Land and Agrarian Research, University with the Western Cape. (Sustainable Livelihoods in Southern Africa research briefing. ) Lawrence, M. and A. Manson (1994) " вЂThe Dog from the Boers: the Rise and Fall of Mangope in Bophuthatswana', Diary of The southern area of African Research, 20(3): 447-461. Le Roux, P. (2002) вЂFinancing a Universal Income Grant in South Africa', Social Dynamics, 28(2): 98-121. Marcus. Capital t. (1989) Modernising Super-Exploitation: Restructuring South Africa Agriculture, London, uk: Zed Catalogs.
May, J., They would. Attwood, G. Ewang, N. Lund, A. Norton, T. Wentzal (1997) Experience and Perceptions of Poverty in South Africa (synthesis report to get the SA-PPA), Durban: Ubung. McLaughlin, B. (2002) вЂProletarianisation, Agency and Changing Rural Livelihoods: Forced Labour and Resistance in Colonial Mozambique', Journal of Southern Africa Studies 28(3): 511-530. Meth, C. and R. Dias (2004) вЂIncreases in Poverty in South Africa, 1999-2002' Advancement Southern The african continent 21(1): 59-85. Murray, C. (2001) Livelihoods Research: A few Conceptual and Methodological Concerns, Chronic Low income Research Hub, Background Paper No . a few. Murray, C. (2002) вЂLivelihoods Research: Transcending Boundaries of Time and Space', Journal of Southern Photography equipment Studies 28(3): 489-509. Murray, C. and G. Williams (1994) вЂEditorial: Land and Freedom in South Africa', Review of African Political Economic system 61: 315-24. Nattrass, L. (1981) The South Photography equipment Economy: It is Growth and Change, London: Oxford University Press. Pycroft, C. (2000a) вЂIntegrated Development Planning and Country Local Government in South Africa', Third World Planning Review 22(1): 87102. Pycroft, C. (2000b) вЂDemocracy and Delivery: the Rationalization of Local Government in South Africa', International Overview of Administrative Sciences 66(1): 143-159. Ravallion, Meters. (2002) How Not to Count the Poor: a Reply to Ravallion and Pogge, Washington, Deb. C.: Globe Bank. Reddy, S. G. and T. W. Pogge (2002) How Not to Rely the Poor, Ny: Barnard College. Russell, Meters. (2004) Understanding Black Households in The southern area of Africa: the African Kinship and Traditional western Nuclear Relatives Systems, University of Cape Town, Center for Social Science Research, Working Paper No . 7. Samson, Meters. and G. Standing (eds. ) (2003) A Basic Cash flow Grant intended for South Africa, Hat Town: University of Shawl Town Press. Schirmer, S i9000. (2000) вЂPolicy Visions and Historical Facts: Land Change in the Framework of New Agricultural Developments', African Studies 59(2): 143-167 Scoones, I. (1998) Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Construction for Analysis, IDS Working Paper 72, Brighton: IDS. Seekings, T. and D. Nattrass (2005) Class, Race and Inequality in South Africa, New Dreamland, C. To. and London: Yale University Press. Seiler, J. (1999) вЂBophuthatswana: a situation of Politics', in L. Seiler (ed. ) Changing Mangope's Bophuthatswana: Towards Democracy in North West Region, Johannesburg: Daily Mail and Guardian. Fernsehsender, J. (2002) вЂWomen's Struggle to Escape Non-urban Poverty in South Africa', Journal of Agrarian Alter 2(1): 1-49. Solesbury, Watts. (2003) Sustainable Livelihoods: A Case Study with the Evolution of DFID Plan, ODI Working Paper No . 217, London, uk: Overseas Advancement Institute.
StatsSA (1998a) Unemployment and Employment in South Africa, offered at www.statssa.gov.za StatsSA (1998b) Labour Statistics: Career, Salaries and Wages: Mining, Quarrying and Manufacturing, Development and Electricity, available at www.statssa.gov.za StatsSA (1998c) Population Census, 1996, available at www.statssa.gov.za StatsSA (2000) October Household Survey 1999, sold at www.statssa.gov.za StatsSA (2003) Work Force Survey September 2002, available at www.statssagov.za StatsSA (2005a) Gross Home Product, Twelve-monthly estimates: 1993-2004, available at www.statssa.gov.za StatsSA (2005b) Survey of Employment and Earnings, offered at www.statssa.gov.za StatSA (2005c) Time Force Survey 2005, offered at www.statssa.gov.za Excess People Project (1983) Compelled Removals in South Africa, Vol. 5, The Transvaal, Gabardine Town: Excessive People Project. Trapido, S i9000. (1971) вЂSouth Africa in a Comparative Analyze of Industrialisation', Journal of Development Research, 7. a few: 309-320. UNAIDS (2004) Record on the Global AIDS Pandemic, at www.unaids.org. UNFPA (2002) Population and Housing Censuses: Strategies for Minimizing Costs, Inhabitants and Creation Strategies Series, No . four, at http://www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/24_filename_pophousingcens us. pdf format Wade, L. H. (2004) вЂIs Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality? ', Intercontinental Journal of Health Savoir 34(3), 381-414. Wood, G. (2003) вЂStaying Secure, Being Poor: The " Faustian BargainвЂќ, Universe Development 31(3): 455-471. Wooden, G. and S. Salway (2000) вЂIntroduction: Securing Livelihoods in Dhaka Slums', Record of Foreign Development 12(5): 669-688. Globe Bank (2000) World Development Report 2000/1: Attacking Poverty. Washington Deb. C.: Universe Bank.